The global incidence of cancer is rising rapidly and continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Melanoma deserves special attention since it represents one of the fastest growing types of cancer, with advanced metastatic forms presenting high mortality rates due to the development of drug resistance. The aim of this review is to evaluate how the screening of drugs and compounds for melanoma has been performed over the last seven decades. Thus, we performed literature searches to identify melanoma drug screening methods commonly used by research groups during this timeframe. In vitro and in vivo tests are essential for the development of new drugs; however, incorporation of in silico analyses increases the possibility of finding more suitable candidates for subsequent tests. In silico techniques, such as molecular docking, represent an important and necessary first step in the screening process. However, these techniques have not been widely used by research groups to date. Our research has shown that the vast majority of research groups still perform in vitro and in vivo tests, with emphasis on the use of in vitro enzymatic tests on melanoma cell lines such as SKMEL and in vivo tests using the B16 mouse model. We believe that the union of these three approaches (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) is essential for improving the discovery and development of new molecules with potential antimelanoma action. This workflow would provide greater confidence and safety for preclinical trials, which will translate to more successful clinical trials and improve the translatability of new melanoma treatments into clinical practice while minimizing the unnecessary use of laboratory animals under the principles of the 3R's.
Front Oncol 9:512
Frontiers in Oncology